DEMOCRACY IS NO HARLOT TO BE PICKED UP IN THE STREET BY A
KID WITH AN AR-15... ER, EXCUSE ME, BY A MAN WITH A TOMMY GUN
- Speech of Prime Minister Winston Churchill to Parliament (concerning urban uprising in Greece), 12/08/1944.
For a fascinating article on the violence in the streets of Athens during the winter of 1944-45, click
here.

枪杆子里面出政权
POLITICAL POWER COMES OUT
OF THE BARREL OF THE GUN.
毛泽东 Mao Zedong (aka Mao Tse-tung)


THIS IS NOT THE
USA!












THE ASIAN AMERICAN HOUR has gotten bigger - we are now on the air weekly on public radio
WAIF-CINCINNATI 88.3 FM and our broadcast time has moved to prime-time  
THE ASIAN AMERICAN
HOUR
CONTINUES 19 YEARS ON THE AIR WITH WAIF 88.3 FM - Date of First Broadcast: 6/7/2001
THE ASIAN AMERICAN HOUR will continue to feature talk, and music, and other good things with a discernable
slant towards Asian American affairs, immigration, and many other issues of interest to our community-at-large.
 
THE ASIAN AMERICAN HOUR is produced and hosted by Charleston Wang, Esq. with John G. O'Neill.
as co-host, together with our distinguished guests.

So, tune in to
THE ASIAN AMERICAN HOUR on WAIF-CINCINNATI 88.3 FM. every Monday 5-6 PM. Get the latest
on the Asian American community in Cincinnati, the fast growing & mobile community in the Tri-state.   

After listening to the
THE ASIAN AMERICAN HOUR, e-mail us direct feedback and thoughts by clicking here.  If
you or a friend wish to be a guest on
THE  ASIAN AMERICAN HOUR,  please let us know.  Tune in to THE ASIAN
AMERICAN  HOUR
every Monday 5 - 6 PM on WAIF 88.3 FM Cincinnati on the air, or listen
Via internet streaming audio from anywhere in the world by clicking here.
Charleston C. K. Wang, Producer & Host
John G. O'Neill, Co-Host
A READER'S RESPONSE:   

This is an important message. First, this will help quell the rumors about secret labs. Numerous science fiction media have used
the secret lab troupe for decades. It's time we separated fact from fiction. Second, ironically, it is science fiction that often
comments on politics and science by way of their fictional stories. Writers avoided persecution by saying their work was only
fiction. Third, I wonder how many people realize their statements are laced with bigotry. They fuel the us vs them narratives,
stereotypes, ethnocentrism, and ridiculous manifest destiny claims of a superior race. Fourth, your work identifies corruption
and greed. Why do these markets exist in the current states? Why are billionaires getting richer during a pandemic?  Thanks for
sending this,

Quinton, May 4, 2020.
JANUARY, 2021 Extra
For December 2020 Extra Click Here
Mary Ellen O'Connell
Photocredit:  Mary Joan Reutter
To read
"A Reflection
of Jerusalem
and the New
Jerusalem
from the Ground,"  
click
here.
To view
"Into  the
Heat of
the Hebron
Cauldon,"
\click
here.
To view "The
Garden of
Gethsemane and
Church of All
Nations," click

here.
To view
"Pilgrimage to
Bethlehem,
Birthplace
of Jesus,
click
here.
To view
"Herodion:
A Fortress
During the
Gospels,"
click
here.
To read"The
Wilderness
of Abraham,
Jesus &
Israel-
Palestine,"
click
here.
To view "In
Search of the
Messianic
Secret -
Caesarea Phillipi,"
click
here.
To read "Jury
for Jericho,"  
click
here.
To view
"The
Empty
Tombs,"
click
here.
THE HOLY ISLE OF PATMOS
Click here or on photo to see WANGNEWS Special
To view "Two
Very Different
Houses" click

here.
EPHESUS OF ST. PAUL & ST. JOHN
Click here or on photo to see WANGNEWS Special
To view
"The Holy
Isle of
Patmos"
click
here.
To view
"Sufis
Rumi
Konya,"
click
here.
MEDITATING MEDITERRANEAN
Click here or on photo to see WANGNEWS Special
THE WRATH OF PAUL
Click here or on photo to see WANGNEWS Special
To view
"Wrath
of
Paul,"
click
here.
To view
"Medita-
ting Medi-
terra-nean,"
click
here.
To view
"Caesarea
Maritima as
Known to
Saint Paul,"
click
here.
To view
"The Call for
Simon Peter,
Fisherman,"
click
here.

To read
"In Search
of Lazarus,"
click
here.
To view
"In The
Upper
Room"
click \
here.
To view
"The Church
of St. Peter
in Gallicantu"
click
here.
To view
"Visitng the
Dome of the
Rock"
click
here.
To view
Group
photos of
Cincinnati
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Jerusalem
click
here.
To read
"Hezekiah's
Tunnel
under the
City of David,"
click
here.
PLEASE CLIICK ON PHOTO TO SEE
COMPLETE PHOTONEWS SPECIAL
ON "THE FACES OF TURKEY."
THE FACES OF TURKEY
INFOCUS:
CHEMICAL
WEAPONS & THE
HUMANITARIAN CRISIS
IN SYRIA
Click on Photo

Bill Bell and Charleston C. K. Wang
BE THE CHANGE:
CIVIL RIGHTS &
IMMIGRATION REFORM
IN 2013

Robert Harris & Charleston C. K. Wang
To view
"Ephesus
of St. Paul
and
St. John"
click
here.
A REAL UZBEK DYNASTY
Buy your MEIER'S Sparkling
Juices on-line by clicking here.
Four Elders from Uzbekistan in their many colored coats
Photocredit:  Boris Yusupov
For Upcoming Sunday
Seminars on Current
Issues at Christ Church
Cathedral in the City of
Cincinnati
click here.

Bill Bell and Charleston C. K. Wang
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A WIN IN THE U.S.  SIXTH CIRCUIT COURT OF APPEALS. On August 18, 2014 in Nifadev v. Holder, (Case No. 13-3704/4222
6th Cir. 2014), the United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit held that Mikheil B. Nifadev has proven his claim that he
had suffered persecution by reason of his Russian ethnicity at the hands of the security and regular police of Uzbekistan.   The
Court vacated the decision of the Board of Immigration Appeals (BIA) in Washington, D.C. which had denied Mr. Nifadev asylum,
and the Court remanded the case with additional instructions to the United States Attorney General, including that the BIA should
determine whether the BIA should also reconsider its denial of Nifadev’s application for withholding of removal and protection
under Convention Against Torture (abbreviated CAT for Convention Against Torture And Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading
Treatment or Punishment of the United Nations) in light of the opinion of the Court.  The Sixth Circuit opinion essentially and
explicitly held that
"[b]ecause the IJ [Immigration Judge] appears to have erred in her determination that Nifadev did not suffer
past persecution and because the IJ clearly misinterpreted Nifadev’s credible testimony regarding the ethnic animus of the
Uzbekistan security officials, we find that Nifadev has made out a credible case of being a refugee under the definitions of
8 U.S.C. § 1158(b)(1)(A)."
 [Emphasis added].   The United States Immigration Court in Cleveland, Ohio, had initially
found Mr.  Nifadev and his witnesses to be credible but declined to grant asylum because it erroneously determined that
Mr. Nifadev had NOT suffered persecution.   Shown in photograph on the right is Mr. Mikheil B. Nifadev with Charleston
C. K. Wang, Esq.  who represented Mr. Nifadev during trial and both appeals. To read complete opinion, please
click here.
Pursuant to the Sixth Circuit opinion, the BIA on January 5, 2015, ordered the Immigration Court to grant asylum to Mr. Nifadev.
To read the BIA order, please
click here.
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Working the Tan Lines by the
Aegean of the Mediterranen
Beyond in the mist rises
fabled Patmos, May 2012
Working the Tan Lines
on the bank of the Dead Sea
the Lowest Body of Water on Earth
more than 1300 feet below Sea Level
April 2010.
Somewhere near lie biblical Sodom & Gomorrah.
Charleston C K Wang Speedo
GOT RICE?
Charleston C K Wang Speedo
Mr. Nifadev applied for permanent resident status in March, 2017.
CHARLESTON C. K. WANG
NAZLY MAMEDOVA
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Charleston C. K. Wang, Esq.
Mary Ellen O'Connell
Photocredit:  Mary Joan Reutter
To read
"A Reflection
of Jerusalem
and the New
Jerusalem
from the Ground,"  
click
here.
To view
"Into  the
Heat of
the Hebron
Cauldon,"
\click
here.
To view "The
Garden of
Gethsemane and
Church of All
Nations," click

here.
From Left to Right - Charleston C. K. Wang, Esq.,  Professor  
Mary Ellen O'Connell & Dean Gordon A. Christenson, Emeritus
University of Cincinnati College of Law
To view
"Herodion:
A Fortress
During the
Gospels,"
click
here.
To read"The
Wilderness
of Abraham,
Jesus &
Israel-
Palestine,"
click
here.
To view "In
Search of the
Messianic
Secret -
Caesarea Phillipi,"
click
here.
To read
"Descending
to the Dead Sea
and Ascending
to Qumran,"  
click
here.
To read "Jury
for Jericho,"  
click
here.
To view
"The
Empty
Tombs,"
click
here.
To view "Two
Very Different
Houses" click

here.
EPHESUS OF ST. PAUL & ST. JOHN
Click here or on photo to see WANGNEWS Special
To view
"The Holy
Isle of
Patmos"
click
here.
To view
"Sufis
Rumi
Konya,"
click
here.
THE WRATH OF PAUL
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"Wrath
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Paul,"
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Photocredit for this page:  Charleston C. K. Wang
To view
"Caesarea
Maritima as
Known to
Saint Paul,"
click
here.
To view
"The Call for
Simon Peter,
Fisherman,"
click
here.

To read
"In Search
of Lazarus,"
click
here.
To view
"In The
Upper
Room"
click \
here.
To view
"The Church
of St. Peter
in Gallicantu"
click
here.
To view
"Visitng the
Dome of the
Rock"
click
here.
To view
Group
photos of
Cincinnati
Pilgrims in
Jerusalem
click
here.
To read
"Hezekiah's
Tunnel
under the
City of David,"
click
here.
PLEASE CLIICK ON PHOTO TO SEE
COMPLETE PHOTONEWS SPECIAL
ON "THE FACES OF TURKEY."
THE FACES OF TURKEY

V
More Photonews to come.
Visit www.wangnews.net again and soon!
V
INFOCUS:
CHEMICAL
WEAPONS & THE
HUMANITARIAN CRISIS
IN SYRIA
Click on Photo

Bill Bell and Charleston C. K. Wang
BE THE CHANGE:
CIVIL RIGHTS &
IMMIGRATION REFORM
IN 2013

Robert Harris & Charleston C. K. Wang
A REAL UZBEK DYNASTY
Four Elders from Uzbekistan in their many colored coats
Photocredit:  Boris Yusupov

Bill Bell and Charleston C. K. Wang
INFOCUS:
UNIVERSAL
EDUCATION
IN THE
WORLD -
Example of
Malala
Yousafzai
Click on Photo
CLICK ON PHOTO  TO
LISTEN TO  RECITATION
Charge of Light Brigade-Lord Alfred Tennyson
Last of Light Brigade-Rudyard Kipling
Recessional (Victorian Ode)-Rudyard Kipling
Working the Tan Lines by the
Aegean of the Mediterranen
Beyond in the mist rises
fabled Patmos, May 2012
Working the Tan Lines
on the bank of the Dead Sea
the Lowest Body of Water on Earth
more than 1300 feet below Sea Level
April 2010.
Somewhere near lie biblical Sodom & Gomorrah.
Charleston C K Wang Speedo
Charleston C K Wang Speedo
CHARLESTON C. K. WANG
NAZLY MAMEDOVA
WANGLAW
CHARLESTON C. K. WANG
NAZLY MAMEDOVA
WANGLA
W
CHARLESTON C. K. WANG
NAZLY MAMEDOVA
WANGLAW
To read
"Confession of a
Gentile in
Jerusalem:  The
Paradox of the Five
Sheklim Blessing,"  
click
here.
To read "Yad
Vashem, A
Monument &
Name to
Remember"  click

here
.
To read "The
Road to
Emmaus,"  
click
here.
Trihealth Pavilion  2015
SWIM THE COAST T-Shirt
Awarded Distance Swim
THIRTY FIVE (35) MILES
March 2015

Bill Bell and Charleston C. K. Wang
THE DEPTH OF THE "DEEP STATE"

In the last few years, much has been said about the "Deep State" in these United
States, especially by conspiracy theorists.  Most of it is polemics coming from very
high sources, tossed out to advance the political agenda of the perpetrator.

But what is the "Deep State?"   Generally, there is no firm or standard definition as
the phrase varies greatly in context - that is time, place, and speaker.  For example
the very hip urban dictionary on the internet defines "Deep State" as:

A theorized group of shadowy government figures that allegedly make
ruthless or nefarious executive decisions with no oversight, accountability,  
or public record. By the very definition, the existence of the deep-state is
hard to disprove.  ... The term is used very informally, likely because its
conspiratorial nature can carry an undertone of paranoia.

The staid Merriam-Webster dictionary defines "Deep State" as:

An alleged secret network of especially nonelected government officials and
sometimes private entities (as in the financial services and defense
industries) operating extralegally to influence and enact government policy.

I propose another definition of the "Deep State:"   It is:

Civil servants, especially in the federal government, who have served under
two or more presidents and whose actions are governed by their objective
and good faith understanding of the United States Constitution and other laws
and regulations under the Constitution. These career civil servants are
motivated through their long years of service to the nation to do what they
sincerely believe to be ethical for the welfare of the naion and whose actions        
transcends the politics of the day.

The dilemma faced by civil servants that come under my definition is what is one to
do when he or she sees improper, whether unlawful, unethical, or immoral.   These
nebulous concepts create the first challenge - what is unlawful?  Sometimes, lawyers,
and even judges cannot agree.  Then, what is "unethical?"  What is "immoral?"  

For these reasons, and other reasons which includes fear of retaliation, many in the
"Deep State," especially  those at the lower levels of government simply choose to
"run silent, run deep,"  that is keep quiet and do nothing and live another day maybe
to do something.  Because they choose to run silent, we do not know their names
and cannot discuss their concerns.

For a few others, they become "whistleblowers,"  that is they inform a regulatory, law
enforcement, or oversight agency with the power to investigate. Perhaps, the best
known name recently of a whistleblower at a relatively high level is Lt. Col. Alexander
Vindman.  While serving in the National Security Council,  Col. Vindman publicly
testified in person before the U. S. House of Representatives about the attempt by
President Donald Trump to get the Ukrainian government to investigate a political rival,
former Vice President Joe Biden and his son.  The House voted to impeach the
President, but upon acquittal by the Senate, Col. Vindman and his twin brother were
relieved of their assignments to the White House.  Traditionally, the whistleblower is
hated as a traitor deserving the highest penalty or admired as a quickly forgotten public
hero.

Then there are fewer others in the "Deep State" who dare to use their own official
powers to investigate the highest office holder.  Most of these publicly known names
come from within the Federal Bureau of Investigation.  Perhaps the most famous is
James Comey.  He was dismissed from his post as Director of the FBI by President
Trump on May 9, 2017.  The White House gave
shifting reasons for the firing.  Comey
insistss he was fired because of his refusal to stop the early stages of the Russian
investigation, that is the involvement of Trump associates in the Russian interference
with the Trump-Clinton election of 2016 (which was further investigated by Special
Counsel Robert Mueller).

Even as I write this opinion, the "Deep State" apparently continues to plague the
White House.  I respectfully suggest that Dr. Anthony Fauci is one such person who
has come to the surface to openly contradict President Trump regarding his
position on COVID-19.  In 1968, Dr. Fauci joined the National Institutes of Health (NIH)
as a clinical associate and now serves as head of the National Institute for Allergies
and Infectious Diseases within the NIH. In 2008, he won the Presidential Medal of
Freedom.  His public statements based on science and epidemiological data are a
breath of fresh clean air in contrast to the unfounded statements from the President
on the coronavirus.   Dr. Fauci's fact based statements to the public vitally
supplement the politicized statements issuing at the higher levels, including the
defensive understatements
ab initio of the Surgeon General who was appointed by
the President in 2017.    As of now, Dr. Fauci is still at his post.

So you see, the "Deep State" is deeper than what meets the eye.  At this juncture of
time, place, and personalities. I am glad that we have a "Deep State" that speaks the
truth or blows the whistle, whether on matters of  political wellbeing or public health.  
As Greta Thunberg, wise beyond her years, famously said: "Nature doesn’t bargain, and
you cannot make deals with physics,”  And King Canute, a Scandinavian of old,  could
not stop the rise of the ocean tide by sitting on his throne on the beach.    

Postscript:  With the emerging coronavirus/COVID-19 emergency, it will be the "Deep
State" federal civil servants -  e,g, scientists in the Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention, researchers in the National Institutes for Health, and commissioned officers
of the Public Health Service who will go forth to objectively assess and control the
epidemic.

An Opinion by Charleston C. K. Wang, Updated March 17, 2020.
---===oooOOOooo==--
KEEP CALM BREATHE ON!
Be Safe: Wear Your Mask & Practice Social Distancing
The Coronavirus Does Not Play Politics

RECENTLY President Trump labelled himself a “War President.”  Angela Merkel,
Chancellor of Germany in a rare national television address more subtly said that
"COVID-19 is the biggest challenge since World War II."

But who are we at  war against? The new coronavirus which causes the COVID-19
sickness is sub-microscopic genetic material which occurs in nature.  The virus
can only replicate inside another living host and causes illness when it invades
the cells of the host.  This coronavirus is zoonotic, meaning that it can jump
from one animal species into another, for example from bats to humans.

Viruses have been with us since the first humans and most likely even before
that time.   For example for thousands of years the human smallpox virus killed
many people and decimated the Aztecs in Mexico and other native populations in
the Americas  in the sixteenth century.  Dr. Edward Jenner, during a time when
smallpox was killing many people in the world noticed that milkmaids did not get
smallpox.   But they got mild pox-like blisters from cows.  This was cowpox.  Dr.
Jenner is credited with discovering the smallpox  vaccine which helped eradicate
smallpox.   Dr. Jenner did this without knowing exactly what a virus was - he did
not have an electron microscope or DNA/RNA technology. But he did know
something about cows and milkmaids. The home of Dr. Edward Jenner is now a
museum where Blossom the Gloucester moo moo cow occupies a place of honor.
There, visitors can come and view her cow horns.  Blossom supplied the cowpox
through a dairymaid named Sarah Nelmes that was used in Dr. Jenner's successful
experiment of inoculating eight year old James Phipps.  The modern word vaccine
comes from
vacca which is Latin for cow.

Smaller than bacteria, the virus first become known when in 1892  two scientists
discovered the tobacco mosaic virus, a virus that infects plants (the plant virus
is not known to infect animals).   All types of viruses are and will be part of our
natural environment.
So how does one wage war or even play politics with a virus.  Greta Thunberg,
wise beyond her years, recently said: "Nature doesn’t bargain, and you cannot
make deals with physics (in our case, biology).”  The viral battlefield ultimately is our
own human body which must fight and defeat the virus, the foreign body.  Our own
immune system produces antibodies that recognize and attach to the virus to
neutralize it.

Better yet, all of us can follow social practices to prevent the virus from entering
our own bodies in the first place.  While every human being on earth may eventually
have to fight his or her own private war with the virus, prevention will flatten
the time occurrence curve.  And give science time to search for a vaccine to
help prevent infection.  Remember Dr. Edward Jenner, (and Blosson too) a
pioneer of the vaccination.   And time to treat those seriously affected.  We must
be mindful and ever thankful of all the health care professionals who are taking daily
risks to help the people who are sick.

This COVID-19 virus will cause economic dislocation and
human suffering, but unlike World War II or any other war
between nations, this war against the coronavirus is an
individual’s war.  We must all play our role in preventing
its rapid spread.  The good news is that the coronavirus
does not attack our infrastructure and all our homes, cars
and trucks, stores and factories will be there after humanity
has bested this virus (this is where our politicans can help -
to make sure no one loses the home and other personal  
assets during this "war"). In the meantime, we must have
spirit to look out for not only ourselves but our neighbors,
near and far. And spring and  Easter are coming.

An opinion by Charleston C. K. Wang, March 22, 2020.
---===oooOOOooo==--
                    OF MICE AND COWS

Over 200 years ago, Robert Burns wrote To a Mouse: “The best
laid schemes o' mice an' men / Gang aft agley.”  That observation
still fascinates us today, a time of the virus, human illness, and
economic malaise.  Ergo the travails of the stock markets all over
the world.   But stay calm and breathe on.

As for cows, I already wrote something about them (see article below) -
how a Gloucester moo moo cow and a milkmaid helped Dr. Edward
Jenner eradicate the smallpox through vaccination.   But do not
overlook the potential contribution of the tiny mouse in the current
fight against the new coronavirus and COVID-19.  

Some people develop mild  or little symptoms after exposure to the
new coronavirus while others become critically ill or  even die.   Using
the basic principles of virology which go back to smallpox days, the
question then is why some people can fight off COVID-19?   Can
the plasma of COVID -19 survivors be used to help those who are
critically ill?   A technique can be traced back to over 100 years and
that was used with varying success more recently against the H1N1
pandemic in 2009 and 2013 Ebola epidemic .  
The light shines in the darkness,
and the darkness did not overcome it.
Science Officer
U.S.S. Moomoocow
On March 24, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration through an emergency investigational new drug (IND) protocol, gave permission to
researchers and doctors to request the use of plasma from COVID-19 survivors to deliver antibodies to seriously ill patients.  This treatment is also
known as convalescent therapy.

At the same time, mice with human immune systems are being recruited to help in the safe development towards plasma therapy and other treatments
and even a vaccine specific to COVID-19.   So much for the best laid plans of mice and men often going astray!

Once again, it is worth repeating, that while many politicians see themselves as leading a national war against the coronavirus,  this virus does not
attack a society's infrastructure.  Once humanity has overcome COVID-19, each and every home, car, truck, shop, and factory will still be here. Our
politicians have the duty to ensure that no citizen loses his or her home, or  other important property because of the need to fight the virus.

But the coronavirus does take a toll on  the human body and the human spirit.    While many protocols other than plasma treatment are in the test phase,
we can have confidence that medical science, given time, will yield one or more treatments and a vaccine against the virus.  In the meantime, each and
every one of us must practice social distancing and good hygiene to reduce the spread of the cononavirus and "flatten the curve."   And give thanks
to the health professionals, clinical and research, who are on the "front lines" of this "war."

As for the spirit, we must draw upon our inner strength and our faith in that which is good.  We must see not only to ourselves, but to our neighbors, near
and far, because humanity and the spirit are in this fight together.  Light will overcome darkness.  Warmer weather is upon us;  spring is here, and Easter
will come soon.

Charleston C. K. Wang, Updated March 29, 2020.
Live long & prosper
The Bombing of London During World War II
DOES DOSE MAKE A DIFFERENCE IN COVID-19 TRANSMISSION?
When Can America Go Back to Work:
A Question of Dose-Morbidity Threshold and Cost-Benefit Analysis?

There is a time-tested adage in toxicology - "the dose makes the poison."  This
principle is the scientific basis for OSHA industrial hygiene regulations/exposure
standards.  It is applicable to chemical agents (including carcinogens)  and
physical agents (including radiation which also causes cancer).

This concept is also vital in pharmacology and medicine- "the dose determines
the cure."

The question then is dosage of exposure during
transmission of the COVID-19
virus and onset of illness one of the factors in severity of subsequent illness?  
Stated alternately,
ceteris paribus, does virus dose (both concentration
multiplied by time duration of exposure) make a direct difference to
morbidity/mortality?  The follow-up inquiry then is - "Is there a threshold level?"
- this question will be critical for public policy in coming days.  

Think of it this way - can a human body successfully, through the immune
response,  resist a single invading coronavirus unit or its active"molecule"?  
10, 1,000, 1 million, 1 trillion?  Where does the morbid dose fall - is there a
threshold or not?  This threshold question was debated very intensely during
OSHA policy standard setting vis-a-vis carcinogens - the zero exposure
threshold argument based on carcinogenesis from a single molecule was set
aside.  This is why OSHAenforces a permissible exposure level for known
carcinogens such as asbestos, benzene, coke oven emissions, etc. albeit
set very low.

Indeed, present technology for COVID-19 testing yields quantitative data on
"load" in samples taken from patients.   Currently, virus concentration or "viral
load"  can be expressed as "copies per milliliter."   Samples extracted from the
upper respiratory tract of COVID-19 positive patients show virus concentrations
ranging from around a low of 4 log ten (range in the 10,000) to 6 log ten (range in
the millions) depending on the age of the patient (published on March 23, 2020 in
Lancet).  Comparable reports have appeared, inter alia, in the New England
Journal of Medicine, Journal of Clinical Microbiology
).

The availability of quantitative data lends itself to the construction of a classical
"dose-response curve."  An earlier article dated February 20, 2020 in the
Journal
of Korean Medical Science
presents a discussion of "Viral Load Kinetics"  
wherein the authors correlate virus concentrations (decreasing) over duration of
illness in two patients.  
This is not exactly on point for this discussion on dosage response in the
context of transmission from a person with the virus (perhaps pre-symptomatic
or even asymptomatic, not to be ruling anything out) to a virus free person.  
Perhaps it is impossible to do controlled studies on the human population but
epidemiological data or animal data may be found if looked for.  Such
information may prove vital in future public health policy debates as to when
draconian quarantine can be eased?   Under what circumstances is it safe to go
back to work?  The question will increasingly be a subject matter of public
discussions in the days to come.

Finally, looming always somewhere out there is the specter of or even need for
cost-benefit analysis?  To recap at the risk of over-simplification or even
over-reach, cost-benefit analysis in public health  policy-making is a economic
evaluation methodology where the costs of the program or intervention are
compared to the benefits of the intervention, and both costs and benefits
compared in terms of dollars.   Efforts at such cost-benefit analysis have always
been plagued by the need to put a dollar value on human life.

An opinion by Charleston C. K, Wang.  April 9, 2020.  He was a former OSHA
Compliance Officer and a former Board Certified Industrial Hygienist.  He also
conducted research on control technology with NIOSH/CDC.
KEEP
CALM
BREATHE
ON
OSHA SAVES LIVES - OSHA LEVEL C
PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT (PPE)
This full-face air-purifying respirator fitted with HEPA P100
(color coded pink) filter cartridges NOT needed for coronavirus
ANATOMY OF A NIOSH/OSHA RESPIRATOR

Currently because of the novel coronavirus, there are many stories and photos of
respiratory PPEs (short for personal protective equipment).  A vital component is
respiratory protection - the face mask - since the virus is transmitted person to person
though liquid droplets ejected from the mouth and nose of an infected person.

There is a great demand and a shortage of the disposable "N95 mask" (technically  a
"filtering facepiece respirator or FFR).  The National Institute For Occupational Safety
and Health (NIOSH), a research agency within the Centers of Disease Control and
Prevention, defines the N95 respirators as those "that filters at least 95% of airborne
particles but is not resistant to oil."  Ideally, and OSHA has always emphasized that a
respirator should be selected based on
test-fitting to the face of the wearer.  Test-fitting
is usually is not done on disposable N95 masks, and there always the question of having
a good fit and therefore seal. The user must be trained to properly don the respirator
and field check for seal and leakage before entering the hazardous environment.

To work optimally, an air filtering PPE respirator must have separate exhalation and
inhalation valves.   The inhalation valve(s) is designed to open and the exhalation valve
to close when the wearer breathes in - all the contaminated air must now pass through
the filter which is attached to the exhalation valve and is purified by the filter.   When
breathing out the opposite happens with the valves - the design allows the moisture
laden breath to pass to the outside the mask directly bypassing the filters.  This prevents
the precious filter material from saturating which will occur quickly without the valves.

Since the virus is transmitted in aqueous droplets ejected from the nose and mouth, once
the filter is saturated with water, it becomes permeable to virus laden liquid droplets.  More
so on a 95% filter than one with say 99.97% removal efficiency.

The photograph on the right shows the inside of my OSHA issued
test-fitted half-face
air-purifying respirator which I used when I was an OSHA Compliance Officer.    In the
center of the rubber polymer face-piece is the EXHALATION VALVE.  On the left and right
are the INHALATION VALVES that connect to twin filter cartridges.  Note that fitted with twin
HEPA P100 filter cartridges which are color coded magenta or "pink."  The HEPA P100 is
NIOSH rated for removal of 99.97% of aerosols that include both very fine liquid and solid
particulates.   This is the only filter sufficient to protect against asbestos, a deadly
carcinogen that causes lung cancer and mesothelioma.
The photograph on the left shows the front outside of the same mask.  Note the
external port of the EXHALATION VALVE in the lower center of the face-piece and
the twin magenta filter cartridges that connect to INHALATION VALVES which are
hidden from view .  These filters are replaceable as needed.  The face-piece can
and must be cleaned regularly with soap and water.  While all viruses are very
small, the novel coronavirus is transmitted in larger liquid droplets, ergo the
N95 mask.

Presently most of the N95 masks in use against the coronavirus do not have
replaceable filters.   So there is no INHALATION VALVE because the mask itself
functions as the inhalation mechanism.    The better masks have a built in
exhalation valve and prt which prevent the mask from saturating with condensed
moisture from the wearer's exhaled breath.  Of course infected persons should
not be issued masks with an exhalation valve.  Such masks also should not be
used in enviromments calling for sterile fields such as the surgical operating room.  
Finally, the basic question during this COVID-19 pandemic is why do we wear masks
- to protect ourselves being being infected or to prevent an infected person to
spread the coronavirus to healthy persons?

Even with the simpler disposable N95s, adequate supply is always a concern.  
Over time, when the situation stabilizes, the use of a better respirator plus
test-fitting (balanced against the convenience and perceived safety provided by
disposable masks in infectious environments) should be given further research
and review, especially in the context of occupational safety and health.  Recall the
old OSHA wisdom - protect the first responders first.

An opinion by Charleston C. K. Wang.  Updated April 8, 2020.  He was a former OSHA
Compliance Officer and a former Board Certified Industrial Hygienist.  He also
conducted research on control technology with NIOSH/CDC.
EXHALATION VALVE^
INHALATION
V     VALVES     V
EXHALATION PORT TO VALVE^
FILTER
CARTRIDGE
MAGENTA  V
FILTER
CARTRIDGE
MAGENTA
V
KEEP CALM BREATHE ON!
Be Safe: Practice Social Distancing
LESSON NOT LEARNED:
WHY HAS CHINA NOT BANNED SELLING WILD           
ANIMALS IN "WET” FOOD MARKET?

A “wet” food market is an euphemism traced to the 1970s English
language newspaper Straits Times.  At that time I was a child living in
Malaysia and had gone to these markets with my mother.  One will
find for sale live seafood displayed in water tanks.  And wet sloshy
floors too. The reality also is that some of these markets also sell
live wild mammals.

While there is no evidence that bats, one of the few flying mammals,
are widely consumed in China, there is strong evidence that various
coronavirus that are in bats are transmitted to other larger animals
which end up in a “wet” food market where the virus can jump to
human hosts. The first coronavirus epidemic, SARS-1, spread through
the civet or palm cat sold as human food during the spring of 2003.
Fortunately, this outbreak did not spread outside China. Because
SARS-1 was limited and quickly controlled, the “wet” food markets
continued business as usual. Lesson not learned.

In late 2019, Wuhan, a city in Central China on the Yangtze River,
became the epicenter of SARS-2 or COVID-19.  In 2020, COVID-19
has become a pandemic affecting millions of people everywhere in
the world.  Again, this new coronavirus has been traced to horseshoe
bats.   

There are currently circulating suspicion that this new coronavirus
had leaked from a virology laboratory also in Wuhan.  Even far more
on the fringe is the premise that the U. S. military had brought the
virus into Wuhan. These speculations notwithstanding, the zoonotic
theory remains the most plausible, i.e. this cornavirus is a naturally
occurring mutation that had jumped from bats into humans through
intermediary animals.  The chief intermediary animal suspect is the
pangolin, an endangered ant-eater also sold in “wet” food markets
including the Huanan Wholesale Seafood Market in Wuhan.

Granted the scientific investigation into the etiology of COVID-19 is not
concluded, the old lesson is still being missed.  After the first failed
lesson of SARS-1 and the current scourge of SARS-2, there are signs
that the “wet” food markets are ready to resume business as usual.


There is folk belief that various wild animals including pangolin meat
and scales have medicinal properties.  Cultural dietary habits may die
hard, but there must be a limit to eating wild animals. The hemorrhagic
fever labelled the Ebola epidemic (2013-2016) which at its onset killed
90% of persons infected has been traced to “bushmeat,” another
euphemism for wild animals. Again that virus was successfully brought
under control and another lesson was missed.

Again, consumers may feel the need to eat wild animals and if such
behavior is resistant to the lessons of epidemics and pandemics,
then the central government of the country must take measures to
protect the health of their citizens and their neighbors. Laws against
the selling and consuming of animals caught in the wild must be
permanently put in place and
enforced now.  The idea is not to ban
"wet" food markets
per se, but to prevent the sale of wild animals at
such markets and to better regulate the wholesomeness of
"domesticated animals" sold there.

Even so, the risk of viral pandemics, such as the H1N1 flu pandemic of
2009 which was traced to a triple mutation of bird, swine, and human
flu viruses, inevitably will continue, but "domesticated" farm raised
animals can be subject to health inspections. Health and food agencies
everywhere must improve their vigilance and preparedness. There is
no excuse to ignore the deadly lesson currently being meted out by
COVID-19.    

An opinion by Charleston C. K. Wang. Updated April 26, 2020.
THE OSHA FULL-FACE RESPIRATOR  

Recently in a USA TODAY April 15, 2020 news photo of the medical staff of HonorHealth in
Phoenix, Arizona with a coronavirus ventilator patient that recovered after treatment with  
extra corporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) at that hospital.  The members of the
healing team were wearing full-face respirators!  This is a quantum improvement over
the N95 mask.

On the right are two photos of the inside and outside of an OSHA full face air-purifying
respirator I used as personal protective equipment while I was working at a hazardous  
waste treatment and emergency response company.   It is fitted with the magenta
P100 filter cartridge.  Such a set-up falls into the upper end of the OSHA Level C
personal protection which is required in hazardous environments presenting known
contaminants.

As you can see, such a full-face respirator is built on a half-face respirator but has an
additional clear face piece that protects the eyes.   Contaminants including the
coronavirus can enter through the eyes as well as the nose and mouth (but not through
the skin against which Level B protection is necessary)..  The full face respirator
dispenses with the use of face-shields or goggles for eye protection, which otherwise
must be worn such as with N95 masks.

As with the half-face respirator, the full-face has exhalation and inhalation valves built
into it.   The drawbacks of this respirator are the same as the half-face with the added
burden and discomfort during prolonged use.  However the benefit is that it offers far
greater and more consistent protection than both the half-face respirator and the N95
mask.

While not presently required to protect workers in known coronavirus presence, the
full-face OSHA respirator is a time-tested control technology that has saved the lives of
people working in workplaces that are contaminated with hazardous agents.

An opinion by Charleston C. K. Wang.  Updated April 18, 2020.  He was a former OSHA
Compliance Officer and a former Board Certified Industrial Hygienist.  He also conducted
research on control technology with NIOSH/CDC.
<< CLEAR         
FULL
FACE-PIECE
THAT
PROTECTS
EYES
  
<   EXHALATION
VALVE
INHALATION
V   VALVES    V  
INNER
FACE-PIECE
THAT
PROTECTS
NOSE &MOUTH
   >>
To view
"Istanbul"
click
here.
To view
"Hagia
Sophia"
click
here.
To view
"Faces
of
Turkey"
click
here.
Federal OSHA Needs to Promulgate Uniform Workplace Standards
To Protect U. S. Workers from Coronavirus

As summer approaches, we are getting ready to go back to work.  The restarting of U. S. industry and commerce is occurring on a state-
by-state basis.  As workers report back to duty, the COVID-19 virus will not take a break.  This virus will still be at large and even when a
vaccineecomes available, it will be practically suppressed but probably never eradicated.

Now is the time for OSHA to promulgate uniform workplace safety and health standards to protect American workers from this virus and
other viruses and pathogens of the future.  Indeed, since 1970 when President Richard M. Nixon signed the Williams-Steiger Act into
national law, OSHA has been doing just that for half a century.

In the past, OSHA has enacted standards to protect workers from cancer-causing substances such as asbestos, formaldehyde, and benzene.   
OSHA also has a well accepted blood-borne pathogens standard as a result encounters with HIV and hepatitis.  Drawing from the blood-borne
pathogen experience, OSHA has the wherewithal to issue reasonable and practical standards against the coronavirus, which essentially
transmits as an air-borne aerosol or droplet.

A time tested arsenal of control technology is available off-the-shelf to protect workers from this and
other pathogens transmitted by inhalation and eye penetration.  We all have heard of personal protective
equipment (PPE) against the coronavirus – masks, respirators, goggles, faceshields, gloves, etc.   Along with
the PPE is test-fitting and training on how to don and doff, maintain, and safely dispose of used equipment
(like the needles and sharps disposal container for blood-borne pathogens).

Workers must be trained and follow safe work practices such as regular washing of hands and keeping
safe distances.  Administrative controls such as routine decontamination of work surfaces is effective.  
Inexpensive engineered controls such a splastic partition shields are already appearing in public areas
of workplaces. The employer must stock up and ensure PPE availability.  Regular screening for
symptoms of infection and more specific viral and antibody testing should also be part of administrative
controls, as is already done for cumulative chemical hazards such as lead and other heavy metals.

Consideration must be given to the cost of all controls, and with careful review, a set of uniform and cost
-effective standards will benefit all American worker and employer who are ready to restart the national economy.

An Opinion by Charleston C. K. Wang.  Revised May 21, 2020.    He was a former OSHA Compliance Officer and formerly was Board Certified in
Industrial Hygiene.   He had also conducted research in control technology against workplace hazards with NIOSH-CDC.
WE ALL ARE SURVIVORS

We are survivors all.  You and I, each and everyone of us on this
Earth are all survi vors of uncountable epidemics and pandemics
for many thousands of years.   All the ancestors of anyone of us
did not succumb to myriad of once nameless disease that
played its part in thinning out the human herd.

As the years progressed, humans began to give names to some
of the deadly infections - for example, the bubonic plague,
smallpox, measles, influenza, HIV, and presently COVID-19.  With
the invention of the simple glass lens microscope, scientists
began to link some of these diseases to bacteria.

Bubonic plague, also known as the Black Death, is estimated to
have killed 30-60 % of the population of Europe while it raged.   
Locking oneself inside the home away form others did not stop
Black Death because this type of plague bacteria was transmitted
by fleas infesting rats.  To survive the plague, people had to fall
back on their own immune system, but the advent of antibiotics
brought just about all the bacteria infections under control.  With
the more powerful electron microscope, the virus became the
next frontier of the science of infections.  Presently there is no
cure for viral infections, only a vaccine that helps the human
immune system to fight off the virus.

The story of the vaccine is worth retelling.  Dr. Edward Jenner,
during a time when smallpox was killing many people in the
world noticed that milkmaids did not get smallpox.   But they got
mild pox-like blisters from cows.  This was cowpox.  Dr. Jenner is
credited with discovering the smallpox  vaccine which helped
eradicate smallpox.   He did this without knowing exactly what a
virus was - he did not have an electron  microscope. But he did
know something about cows and milkmaids. The home of Dr.
Jenner is now a museum where Blossom the Gloucester cow
occupies a place of honor. There, visitors can come and view her
cow horns.  Blossom supplied the cowpox through a dairymaid
named Sarah Nelmes that was used to inoculate 8 year old James
Phipps. The modern word vaccine comes  from
vacca which is
Latin for cow.

The other morbid story about smallpox is that it is one of some
very deadly infections that Christopher Columbus in 1492 brought
to the Americas from the Old World.  Because the people on this
continent had not developed any immunity, the onset of these
novel diseases were devastating and contributed to the decline of
many ancient American civilizations.  But the maladies did not end
just then.

Syphilis broke out in Italy in 1495 after Columbus had returned.   
French troops attacking Naples came down with syphilis.  
Naturally, the French called it the "Italian" disease.  To the Italians,
it was the "French" disease.  When this disease spread across
Europe it acquired new names.  During its War for Independence,
the Dutch labeled syphilis the "Spanish" disease.  The Russians
called it the "Polish" disease.  The Ottomans named it the
"Christian" disease.  And so on and so forth and syphilis is
credited with 50 million deaths until the discovery of the first
antibiotic Penicillin.  Today, syphilis is no longer the dreaded
disease it once was, but is nevertheless loathed because syphilis
is a sexually transmitted disease.

There are many more historical stories of infections from all over
the world, but no space to tell them here.   To conclude, our own
ancestors encountered and survived the diseases before us, and
having survived, we carry a certain degree of resistance to the old
diseases.  It is the new mutations that we must be vigilant against,
as both bacteria and viruses mutate to increase their own
survivability.

An Opinion by Charleston C. K, Wang, Updated June 1, 2020.
CITY OF SILVERTON TRAIN STATION BY NIGHT, AUGUST 2020
THE LEGENDARY P-40 WARHAWK
WITH ICONIC FLYING TIGERS MARKINGS
AVG CHINESE AIR FORCE, 1941-1942.






DAYTON NATIONAL AIR FORCE MUSEUM
September 20, 2020.
< Click on Thumbnail
Click on Thumbnail >
CLICK ON PHOTO
TO SEE MOOMOONEWS
DAYTON MUSEUM
B-17 FLYING FORTRESS
DAYTON NATIONAL AIR FORCE MUSEUM, 09/20/2020.
< Click on Thumbnails>
CLICK ON PHOTO
TO SEE MOOMOONEWS
DAYTON MUSEUM
RECALLING THE CINCINNATI HUMAN RELATIONS COMMISSION - WE NEED IT MORE THAN EVER!
Click on Photo for more photonews
THIS IS A 2007 PHOTO
RECALLING THE CINCINNATI HUMAN RELATIONS COMMISSION - WE NEED IT MORE THAN EVER!
Click on Photo for more photonews
THIS IS A 2007 PHOTO
Jesus said “Let the little children come to me, and do not stop them; for it
is to such as these that the kingdom of heaven belongs.”  Matthew 19:14
The Holy Eucharist at Christ Church Cathedral in the City of Cincinnati

THIS IS NOT THE USA!
THE FIGHTING BLUE HENS
OF DELAWARE
                                                   
                                                                       
A Little Secret of the Electoral College.

For a while now, a debate has been raging about the Electoral College.  In this century two presidents have entered office after they had lost the popular vote
count - in 2000 and 2016. Why do we need the Electoral College override when we have the popular vote count?

The conventional wisdom for keeping the winner-takes-all Electoral College is to balance the political power between the smaller and larger states.  We need
a better understanding of the Electoral College.

The Electoral College only comes every 4 years when we elect the president.  It is simply the total number of elected representatives to the United States
Legislature, also called the Congress.  Now Congress has 100 senators (fixed to 2 per state) and 435 members of the House of Representatives (depends on
the population in the 50 states and allocated proportionally to the states) for a total of 535 .  This is also the number of electoral votes.  A candidate with more
electoral votes becomes the next president.

While the number of Senators is fixed, the number of Representatives varies by the U. S. Census every 10 years.  This counting method is written into our
Constitution, Article 1 Section 2 Clause 3:

Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective
Numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole Number of free Persons, including those bound to Service for a Term of Years, and
excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other Persons.

It is no secret historically that enslaved people counted towards the Electoral but first discounted to 3/5 of the free persons [i.e. men].  Also, enslaved persons
could not vote until constitutional changes passed after the Civil War.  “Free voters” in the slave states had their votes magnified by the enslaved people.   
Cold comfort to note that all women also could not vote until 19th Amendment of 1920 and men had their votes engorged by the women.

Today when the census numbers are tallied, it will include all persons in the United States – citizens and non-citizens.  The count become the Electoral
College.   

Much scrutiny is given to ensure only citizens get to vote towards the popular count.  But what about the Electoral College?  The outgoing administration has
been trying to count out of the census undocumented immigrants.  The Presidential Memorandum on Excluding Illegal Aliens From the Apportionment Base
Following the 2020 Census is now before the U. S. Supreme Court.

The amazing secret is that the census also counts other non-citizens such as lawful permanent residents who have Green Cards and other temporary
immigrants who entered with documents such a work visas and student visas. Under the Constitution, all free Persons  including those bound to Service for a
Term of Years" (what does this clause mean?) other than Indians not taxed (what does this mean?)" are to be counted for apportionment.   Our present
notions of citizenship was unknown to the drafters when the Nation was young, and under-populated and there was open immigration.  The only distinction
known to the revolutionary patriarchs were free Persons, slaves, women and Indians not taxed.

Currently, there are as many if not slightly more documented non-citizens than the 12 million undocumented immigrants  -together to total 24 million or more.  
They easily add up to more the 3/5 of 10% of the population of this Nation!  The thing to do is not exclude them from being counted in the census, as tehy are
ti be counted under the Constitution, but to not count them when electing a President of the United States.  The popular vote strictly reflects the votes cast
only the U. S. Citizens as there historically been strict verification for eligibility to vote, that is U.S. Citizenship.  The Electoral College does not but uses
numbers from the U. S. Census that include more than U. S. Citizens.   Should the Electoral College be abolished?

Charleston C. K. Wang, December 1, 2020.

P.S.  On November 29, 2020, President Trump's attempt to exclude undocumented immigrants from reapportionment was accepted for argument in the United
States Supreme Court.  Once again, it is best not to exlude them from being counted and to elect the next President of the United States by the popular vote
from only U. S. Citizens.
CONFUCIUS SAYS:
MAN NOT WEAR
MASK GET
CHINA VIRUS!
THE MIGHTY FIGHTING BLUE HEN
FROM DELAWARE WILL TROUNCE ANY DUCK.
THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
WELCOMES YOU  IN HAPPY 2021!
This is the Continental Army, Mr. Trump.
This is a 2018
Naturalization
Ceremony Photo.
THE MAGICAL SEASON OF LIGHT
IN DOWNTOWN MONTGOMERY, OHIO, USA
December 19, 2020
The light shines in the darkness, and the darkness did not overcome it.
Wishing You a Happy 2021!
THE BOAR'S HEAD & YULELOG FESTIVAL
FROM CHRIST CHURCH CATHEDRAL IN THE CITY OF
CINCINNATI, OHIO, USA
TO SEE THE BEST OF 14 YEARS OF BOAR'S HEAD
Click on photo to see complete photonews
An Independent Source of News & Views
RECALLING DR. SANTA ONO, PREVIOUS PRESIDENT OF THE
UNIVERSITY OF CINCINNATI.  THIS IS A 2016 FAREWELL PARTY PHOTO.


ARNOLD SCHWARZENEGGER IS THE
REAL CONAN THE BARBARIAN WITH
THE ATLANTEAN SWORD
CONAN
AND
VALERIA
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